Conventions Used in This Book


Used for filenames, directory names, table names, field names, and URLs. It is also used for emphasis and for the first use of a technical term.

Constant width

Used for examples and to show the contents of files and the output of commands.

Constant width italic

Used in syntax descriptions to indicated user-defined items.

Constant width bold

Indicates user input within examples.


Used within syntax descriptions, uppercase usually indicates keywords.


Used within syntax descriptions, lowercase usually indicates user-defined items, such as variables.

[ ]

Used within syntax descriptions, square brackets enclose optional items.

{ }

In syntax descriptions, curly brackets enclose a set of items from which you must choose only one.


Used within syntax descriptions, ellipses indicate repeating information. Used within examples, ellipses indicate that a section of unimportant information was removed from the example output to improve readability and conserve space.