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THIS BOOK IS FOR SYSTEM ADMINISTRATORS WHO ARE FAMILIAR WITH BASIC system administration and with the tasks described in the Solaris System Administrator's Guide, cited in the bibliography at the end of this book.
A Quick Tour of the Contents
This book is divided into seven parts, two appendixes, a glossary, and a bibliography.
Part 1, Mail Services, describes the Solaris 2.x mail services in four chapters. Refer to the chapters in this part if you need to set up a new mail service or expand an existing one.
Chapter 1, Understanding Mail Services, describes the components of the mail service, defines mail service terminology, and explains how the programs in the mail service interact.
Chapter 2, Planning Mail Services, describes several common mail configurations and provides guidelines for setting up each configuration.
Chapter 3, Setting Up and Administering Mail Services, describes how to set up, test, administer, and troubleshoot mail services.
Chapter 4, Customizing sendmail Configuration Files, describes the sendmail configuration file and how to customize it if you need a more complex configuration file for your mail system.
Part 2, NIS+, introduces the NIS+ naming service environment. Refer to the chapters in this part if you want to familiarize yourself with the basics of the NIS+ naming service and its administrative commands. Also refer to these chapters for instructions for setting up an NIS+ client. This part does not provide in-depth information for a system administrator who must set up and support an NIS+ environment.
Chapter 5, Introducing the NIS+ Environment, provides an overview of NIS+, explains how NIS+ differs from the Solaris 1.x NIS naming service, and introduces the NIS+ commands.
Chapter 6, Setting Up NIS+ Clients, describes how to set up a SunOS 5.x system as an NIS+ client when NIS+ servers are set up and running.
Part 3, Automounter Services, describes the Solaris 2.x automount services. Refer to the chapters in this part if you need to set up a new automount service or modify an existing one.
Chapter 7, Understanding the Automounter, describes automount terminology and the components of automounting, explains how the automounter works, recommends automounting policies, and tells you how to plan your automount services.
Chapter 8, Setting Up the Automounter, describes how to set up and administer automount maps.
Part 4, Service Access Facility, describes the Solaris 2.x Service Access Facility (SAF). Refer to the chapters in this part if you need to set up a new SAF service for terminals, modems, or printers or need to modify an existing one.
Chapter 9, Understanding the Service Access Facility, provides an overview of the SAF and describes the port monitors and services used by the SAF.
Chapter 10, Setting Up Modems and Character Terminals, describes how to set up and administer the SAF for modems and terminals.
Chapter 11, Setting Up Printing Services, describes how to set up and administer the SAF for printers and how to troubleshoot printing problems.
Part 5, Application Software, describes how to install and delete application software. Refer to this part for guidelines on setting up an application server and for information on installing and removing application software and patches.
Chapter 12, Installing and Managing Application Software, provides an overview of the installation process, introduces the package commands and the Software Manager for installation, recommends a policy for installing software on an application server, and describes how to access files from a CD-ROM drive.
Chapter 13, Package Commands, describes how to use the package commands to administer application software and how to set up the users' environment.
Chapter 14, Admintool: Software Manager, describes how to use Admintool to administer application software.
Chapter 15, Installing and Managing System Software Patches, describes how to use the new patchadd and patchrm commands.
Part 6, Introduction to Shell Programming, familiarizes you with the basics of shell programming. Use the information in this part to decide which shell language you want to use to perform a specific task. This part does not provide in-depth instructions for writing scripts in the three shells.
Chapter 16, Writing Shell Scripts, introduces the basic concepts of shell programming and the three shells available with Solaris 2.x system software. It describes how shells work and describes the programming elements.
Chapter 17, Reference Tables and Example Scripts, provides reference tables comparing shell syntax. It also contains examples of shell scripts.
Part 7, System Security, provides information about creating and administering secure systems. Refer to these three chapters if you want to familiarize yourself with the basics of system security and if you want to use authentication services and ASET security.
Chapter 18, Understanding System Security, introduces the basic concepts of system security, including file, system, and network security.
Chapter 19, Using Authentication Services, describes how to use authentication services. It provides an overview of secure RPC and explains how to use pluggable authentication modules (PAM).
Chapter 20, Using the Automated Security Enhancement Tool (ASET), describes how to set up and use automated security enhancement tool (ASET).
Refer to these three chapters if you want to familiarize yourself with the basics of system security and if you want to use authentication services and ASET security.
Appendix A, Volume Management, describes a new feature with Solaris 2.2 system software. Volume management automates the mounting of CD-ROMs and diskettes. You no longer need to have superuser permission to mount a CD-ROM or a diskette.
Appendix B, Solaris Server Intranet Extension Products, introduces the products available on the Solaris Server Intranet Extension 1.0 CD-ROM and provides brief installation instructions.
The glossary contains basic system administration terms and defines their meanings.
The bibliography contains a list of books on related system administration topics.
Important: Read This Before You Begin
Because you should assume that the root path includes the /sbin, /usr/sbin, /usr/bin, and /etc directories, the steps show the commands in these directories without absolute pathnames. Steps that use commands in other, less common directories show the absolute path in the example.
The examples in this book are for a basic Solaris 2.x system software installation without the Binary Compatibility Package installed and without /usr/ucb in the path.
CAUTION! If /usr/ucb is included in a search path, it should always be at the end. Commands such as ps and df are duplicated in /usr/ucb with formats and options that are different than the SunOS 5.x commands.
This book describes six different system administration areas in depth; however, a given section may not contain all of the information you need to administer systems. Refer to the complete system administration documentation set for complete information.
Because the Solaris 2.x system software provides the Bourne (default), Korn, and C shells, examples in this book show prompts for each of the shells. The default Bourne and Korn shell prompt is $. The default C shell prompt is system-name%. The default root prompt for all shells is a pound sign (#). In examples that affect more than one system, the C shell prompt (which shows the system name) is used to make it clearer when you change from one system to another.
SPARC and x86 Information
This book provides system administration information for both SPARC and x86 systems. Unless otherwise noted, information throughout this book applies to both types of systems. See SPARC and x86 System Administration Differences summarizes the differences between the SPARC and x86 system administration tasks.
|System operation before kernel is loaded||A programmable read-only memory (PROM) chip with a monitor program runs diagnostics and displays device information.||The basic input/output system (BIOS) runs diagnostics and displays device information.|
|The PROM is also used to program default boot parameters and to test the devices connected to the system.||A Solaris Device Configuration Assistant boot diskette with the Multiple Device Boot (MDB) program is used to boot from non-default boot partitions, the network, or the CD-ROM.|
|Booting the system||Commands and options at the PROM level are used to boot the system.||Commands and options at the MBD, primary, and secondary boot subsystems level are used to boot the system.|
|Boot programs||bootblk, the primary boot program, loads ufsboot.||mboot, the master boot record, loads pboot.|
|ufsboot, the secondary boot program, loads the kernel.||pboot, the Solaris partition boot program, loads bootblk.|
|bootblk, the primary boot program, loads ufsboot.|
|ufsboot, the secondary boot program, loads the kernel.|
|System shutdown||The shutdown and init commands can be used without additional operation intervention.||The shutdown and init commands are used but require operator intervention at the Type any key to continue prompt.|
|Disk controllers||SCSI||SCSI and IDE.|
|Disk slices and partitions||A disk may have a maximum of eight slices, numbered 0-7.||A disk may have a maximum of four fdisk partitions.|
|The Solaris fdisk partition may contain up to ten slices, numbered 0-9, but only 0-7 can be used to store user data.|
|Diskette drives||Desktop systems usually contain one 3.5-inch diskette drive.||Systems may contain two diskette drives: a 3.5-inch and a 5.25-inch drive.|
Solaris System Software Evolution
Because Solaris 2.x system software is evolving, the procedures may differ depending on the system software that is installed on the system you are administering. For example, with the advent of Solaris 2.2 volume management, procedures for accessing files on CD-ROM discs and on diskettes are different for Solaris 2.2 and later releases. The old procedures will not work on the new software. To help you understand how Solaris is evolving, See SPARC and x86 System Administration Differences provides a list of the major system administration feature differences for each release. See Solaris System Software Evolution describes three new NIS+ scripts.
|Solaris 1.0||Berkeley (BSD) UNIX with Solaris 4.x functionality.|
|Solaris 2.0 (SunOS 5.0)||A merger of AT&T System V Release 4 (SVR4) and BSD UNIX. To facilitate customer transition, Solaris uses SVR4 as the default environment, with BSD commands and modes as an option. Administration Tool provides a graphical user interface Database Manager and Host Manager. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Solaris 2.1 (SunOS 5.1)||Administration Tool adds a graphical user interface Printer Manager and User Account Manager. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Solaris 2.2 (SunOS 5.2)||Volume management integrates access to CD-ROM and diskette files with the File Manager and provides a command-line interface. Users no longer need superuser privileges to mount CD-ROMs and diskettes. (Solaris 2.0 and 2.1 procedures do not work with volume management because volume management controls and owns the devices. Refer to Appendix A.)|
|Solaris 2.3 (SunOS 5.3)||Volume management changes Solaris 2.2 mount point naming conventions. (Refer to Appendix A.)|
|Administration Tool adds a graphical user interface Serial Port Manager with templates that provide default settings, which makes adding character terminals and modems much easier. (Refer to Appendix B.)|
|The automounter is split into two programs: an automounted daemon and a separate automount program. Both are run when the system is booted. The /tmp_mnt mount point is not displayed as part of the pathname, and the local path is displayed as /home/username. Additional predefined automount map variables are provided. (Refer to Part 3.)|
|Online: Backup 2.1 is included with the release. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Pluggable Authentication Model (PAM) is included with the release. PAM provides a consistent framework to allow access control applications, such as login, to choose any authentication scheme available on a system without concern for the implementation details of the scheme. (Not documented in this book.)|
|C2 Security is included in this release. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Format(1) changes for SCSI disks. (Not documented in this book.)|
|PPP network protocol product that provides IP network connectivity over a variety of point-to-point connections is included in this release. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Cache File System (CacheFS) for NFS is included in this release. CacheFS is a generic, nonvolatile caching mechanism used to improve the performance of certain file systems by using a small, fast, local disk. (Not documented in this book.)|
|New NIS+ setup scripts are included in this release. The nisserver(1M), nispopulate(1M), and nisclient(1M) scripts described in See Solaris System Software Evolution let you set up an NIS+ domain much more quickly and easily than if you used the individual NIS+ commands to do so. With these scripts, you can avoid a lengthy manual process.|
|Solaris 2.4 (SunOS 5.4)||New Motif GUI for Solaris software installation. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Solaris 2.5 (Solaris 5.5)||New pax(1M) portable archive interchange command for copying files and file systems to portable media. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Solstice AdminTools™ utility that is used only to administer local systems.|
|Solstice AdminSuite™ product that is available for managing systems in a network for SPARC and x86 systems. (Not documented in this book. Refer to the Solaris System Administrators Guide for a summary of AdminSuite functionality.)|
|New process tools are available in /usr/proc/bin that display highly detailed information about the active processes stored in the process file system in the /proc directory. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Telnet client upgraded to the 4.4 BSD version. rlogin and telnetd remote login capacity improved. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Solaris 2.5.1 (SunOS 5.5.1)||The limit on user ID and group ID values has been raised to 2147483647, or the maximum value of a signed integer. The nobody user and group (60001) and the no access user and group (60002) retain the same UID and GID as in previous Solaris 2.x releases. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Solaris 2.6 (SunOS 5.6)||Changes to the Solaris 2.6 printing software provide a better solution than the LP print software in previous Solaris releases. You can easily set up and manage print clients using the NIS or NIS+ name services to enable centralization of print administration for a network of systems and printers. New features include redesign of print packages, print protocol adapter, bundled SunSoft™ Print Client software, and network printer support.|
|New nisbackup and nisrestore commands provide a quick and efficient method of backing up and restoring NIS+ namespaces.|
|New patch tools, including patchadd and patchrm commands, add and remove patches. These commands replace the installpatch and backoutpatch commands that were previously shipped with each individual patch.|
|New filesync command for nomadic support ensures that data is moved automatically between a portable computer and a server. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Restructuring of the previous flat/proc file system into a directory hierarchy that contains additional subdirectories for state information and control functions. It also provides a watchpoint facility to monitor access to and modifications of data in the process address space. The adb(1) command uses this facility to provide watchpoints. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|Large files are supported on UFS, NFS, and CacheFS file systems. Applications can create and access files up to one TB on UFS-mounted file systems and up to the limit of the NFS server for NFS- and CacheFS-mounted file systems. A new -mount option is provided to disable the large-file support on UFS file systems. Using the -mount option enables system administrators to ensure that older applications that are not able to safely handle large files do not accidentally operate on large files. (Refer to the Solaris System Administrator's Guide.)|
|NFS Kerberos authentication now uses DES encryption to improve security over the network. The kernel implementations of NFS and RPC network services now support a new RPC authentication flavor that is based on the Generalized Security Services API (GSS-API). This support contains the hooks to add stronger security to the NFS environment.|
|The PAM authentication modules framework enables you to "plug in" new authentication technologies.|
|Font Admin enables easy installation and use of fonts for the X Window System™. It supports TrueType, Type0, Type1, and CID fonts for multibyte languages and provides comparative font preview capability. It is fully integrated into the CDE desktop. (Not documented in this book.)|
|TrueType fonts are supported through X and Display PostScript™. Font Admin enables easy installation and integration of third-party fonts into the Solaris environment. (Not documented in this book.)|
|The Solaris 2.6 operating environment is year 2000 ready. It uses unambiguous dates and follows the X/Open guidelines where appropriate. (Not documented in this book.)|
|WebNFS software enables file systems to be accessed through the Web using the NFS protocol. This protocol is very reliable and provides greater throughput under a heavy load. (Not documented in this book.)|
|The Java Virtual Machine 1.1 integrates the Java platform for the Solaris operating environment. It includes the Java runtime environment and the basic tools needed to develop Java applets and applications. (Not documented in this book.)|
|For x86 systems, the Configuration Assistant interface is part of the new booting system for the Solaris (Intel Platform Edition) software. It determines which hardware devices are in the system, accounts for the resources each device uses, and enables users to choose which device to boot from. (Not documented in this book.)|
|For x86 systems, the kdmconfig program is used to configure the mouse, graphics adapter, and monitor. If an Owconfig file already exists, kdmconfig extracts any usable information from it. In addition, this updated version of kdmconfig also retrieves information left in the devinfo tree by the defconf program and uses that information to automatically identify devices. (Not documented in this book.)|
|Full X/Open UNIX 95, POSIX 1003.1b and ISO 10646 standards compliance. (Not documented in this book.)|
|NIS+ Script||What It Does|
|nisserver(1M)||Sets up the root master, nonroot master, and replica servers with level 2 security (DES).|
|nispopulate(1M)||Populates NIS+ tables in a specified domain from their corresponding system files or NIS maps.|
|nisclient(1M)||Creates NIS+ credentials for hosts and users; initializes NIS+ hosts and users; and restores the network service environment.|
Refer to the nisserver(1M), nispopulate(1M), and nisclient(1M) manual pages for more information.
Conventions Used in This Book
In the steps and examples, the commands to be entered are in bold type. For example: "Type su and press Return." When following steps, press Return only when instructed to do so, even if the text in the step breaks at the end of a line.
Variables are in italic typeface. When following steps, replace the variable with the appropriate information. For example, to tell a printer to accept a print request, the step instructs you to type accept printer-name and press Return. To substitute the printer named pinecone for the printer-name variable, type accept pinecone and press Return.
Mouse Button Terminology
This book describes mouse buttons by function. The default mapping of mouse buttons in a three-button mouse is:
Use the SELECT mouse button to select unselected objects and to activate controls. Use the ADJUST mouse button to adjust a selected group of objects, either adding to the group or deselecting part of the group. Use the MENU mouse button to display and choose from menus.
This book distinguishes among different types of media storage terminology in this way:
Marginal icons distinguish between three different types of information:
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